Margaret Judd Associate Professor
Margaret Judd was Special Collections Curator in the Department of Ancient Egypt & Sudan at The British Museum before coming to the University of Pittsburgh in 2004. She is a bioarchaeologist who is currently excavating a Byzantine crypt at the ancient monastery at Mount Nebo, Jordan. She has worked extensively in northern Sudan, in addition to Russia, Egypt, Italy and Canada.
Her interests focus on shifts in health and associated funerary treatment as effected by technological, behavioral and sociopolitical changes. Specific interests include life course injury and daily practice.
Bioarchaeology & Paleopathology
View of Jordan Valley and Dead Sea from Robebus Chapel, Mt Nebo, Jordan.
In press Judd, MA. Report for season 6 (2014) at the Robebus Crypt, Mount Nebo, Jordan. Liber Annuus 64.
Entrance to South chamber of East crypt at Robebus Chapel, Mt Nebo, Jordan.
2008 Judd, MA. The crypts at the Chapel of Robebus, Mount Nebo (report). Liber Annuus (2007): 656-660.
Disarticulated children’s bones with two Byzantine glass vessels and copper bracelet, South Chamber of East crypt, Robebus Chapel, Mt Nebo, Jordan.
2008 Judd, MA. The crypts at the Chapel of Robebus, Mount Nebo (report). Liber Annuus (2007): 656-660.
Burial corridors in royal tumulus at Kerma excavated by George Reisner 1913 (after Reisner 1923).
Buzon, MR and MA Judd
2008 Investigating health at Kerma: Sacrificial vs. nonsacrificial individuals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136:93-99.
Eburnated pubic symphysis possibly the result of intensive activity (Hierakonpolis, Egypt).
Judd, MA Judd
2010 Pubic symphyseal face eburnation: an Egyptian sport story? International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 20:280-290.
LSAMAT (Lingual surface attrition of the maxillary anterior teeth) at R12 likely resulting from using teeth as tools.
2008 The human skeletal analysis. In S Salvatori and D Usai (Eds), A Neolithic Cemetery in the Northern Dongola Reach: Excavations at Site R12 British Museum Press, pp. 285-319
Wadi ath-Thamad, crew and donkey embark on cemetery survey.
2006 Cemetery survey and excavation at Wadi ath-Thamud, 2005. In PMM Daviau, R Chadwick, M Steiner, A Dolan, N Mulder-Hijmans, MA Judd and J Ferguson. Excavation and Survey at Khirbat al-Mudayna and its Surroundings Preliminary Report of the 2001, 2004 and 2005 Seasons. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 50:269-75, 281-3
Wadi ath-Thamad, excavation at WT112 reveals disarticulated adults within field building and infant buried within wall (historic Bedouin).
Cemetery excavation and bioarchaeology, 2006. In PMM Daviau, R Chadwick, M Steiner, A Dolan, N Mulder-Hijmans, MA Judd and J Ferguson. Excavation and Survey at Khirbat al-Mudayna and its Surroundings Preliminary Report of the 2006 Season. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 52.
Right forearm fractures with pseudoarthrosis due to nonunion. “Different occupations in rural and urban workplaces, particularly those related to animals and agriculture, may account for the higher frequency of indirect-force trauma among males. The homogenous injury pattern among rural and urban females suggests a shared activity base and susceptibility to interpersonal violence. The injury pattern at Kerma produced more severe skull injuries for both sexes, and hand-wielded objects were implicated. This variation in the trauma profile precedes the final Egyptian conquest of Kerma ca. 1500 BC, and may indicate increased social unrest and a shift to nationally motivated violence.”
2006 Continuity of interpersonal violence between Nubian communities. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131:324-333.
Each person regardless of sex or age, was invariably placed in a flexed position, laid on the right side...with the head facing east.
2001 The human remains. In: Life on the Desert Edge: Seven Thousand Years of Settlement in the Nothern Dongola Reach, Sudan. Sudan Archaeological Research Society Publication Number 7, edited by D. Welsby, pp. 458-536.
Distal ulnae showing common attributes of the "parry" fracture. “In the clinical arena, individuals that continually present trauma are referred to as injury recidivists, and are profiled as young ethnic minority males who are unemployed, suffer from socioeconomic problems, and have at least one injury caused by violence. By analogy, multiple injuries sustained by ancient people also may be the result of repeat injuries rather than a single event, and in some cases, may account for a premature death.”
2002 Ancient injury recidivism: an example from the Kerma period of ancient Nubia, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12: 89-106.
“The Kerma cranial injuries were more typical of those sustained from blunt trauma from a portable object, and as there were no associated severe injuries typical of falls from heights, such as the spine, ribs, pelvis or indications of paraplegia. The cranial injuries may indeed have been the outcome of interpersonal violence. The patterning of the skull injuries suggests that a specific anatomical target was preferred during physical conflict—the face was avoided at the expense of the vault—contrary to the modern clinical pattern.”
2004 Trauma in the city of Kerma: ancient versus modern injury patterns. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 14:34-51.
Redfern R, MA Judd and S DeWitte (2016) Multiple injury and health in past societies: an analysis of concepts and approaches, and insights from a multi-period study. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oa.2565/full
Gregoricka, LA and MA Judd. (2015) Isotopic evidence for diet among the Bedouins of Khirbat al Mudayna, Jordan. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 26:705-715.
Judd, MA, Seltzer D, and C Binkosk (2015) Community health at Tell er-Rumeith. In TJ Barako and NL Lapp (Ed) Tell er-Rumeith. The Excavations of Paul W. Lapp, 1962 and 1967. American Schools of Oriental Research, Archaeological Reports 22. Pp. 233-258.
Baker BJ and MA Judd (2012) Development of Paleopathology in the Nile Valley. In History Of Paleopathology: Pioneers and Prospects. Buikstra J, Roberts C and Schreiner SM (eds). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 209-34
Judd, MA. & R. Redfern (2012) Trauma. In A. Grauer (Ed), Companion to Paleopathology. Blackwell, pp. 259-279.
Judd, MA (2012) Gabati. A Meroitic, post-Meroitic and medieval cemetery in central Sudan. Volume 2: The Physical Anthropology. British Archaeological Reports International Series 2442.
Judd, MA (2010) Pubic symphyseal face eburnation: an Egyptian sport story? International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 20:280-290.
Judd, MA (2009) Dying to serve: the mass burials at Kerma. Antiquity 83(321):709-722.
Judd, MA (2008) Chapter 16: Trauma. In J Magilton, A Boylston and F Lee (Eds), Lepers Outside the Gate. Inmates of the Leper Hospital and Almshouse of St. James and St. Mary Magdalene, Chichester, Cemetery Excavations 1986-1993. Chichester Excavations 10 Council for British Archaeology Research Report, pp. 229-238.
Buzon, MR and MA Judd (2008) Investigating health at Kerma: Sacrificial vs. nonsacrificial individuals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136: 93-99.
Judd, MA (2008) The parry problem. Journal of Archaeological Sciences 35:1658-1666.
Judd, MA (2008) The skeletal catalogue. In S Salvatori and D Usai (Eds), A Neolithic Cemetery in the Northern Dongola Reach: Excavations at Site R12. British Museum Press. pp. 83-104.
Judd, MA (2007) Overview of the Hieronkopolis C-Group paleopathology. Sudan & Nubia 11:63-65,70-71.
Judd, MA (2006) Continuity of interpersonal violence between Nubian communities. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131: 324-333.
Judd, MA (2006) Cemetery survey and excavation at Wadi ath-Thamud, 2005. In PMM Daviau, R Chadwick, M Steiner, A Dolan, N Mulder-Hijmans, MA Judd and J Ferguson (Eds), Excavation and Survey at Khirbat al-Mudayna and its Surroundings Preliminary Report of the 2001, 2004 and 2005 Seasons. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 50:269-75, 281-3.
Judd, MA (2004) Trauma in the city of Kerma: ancient versus modern injury patterns. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 14:34-51.
Judd, MA (2002) Ancient injury recidivism: an example from the Kerma Period of ancient Nubia. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12:89-106.
Judd, MA (2002) Comparison of long bone trauma recording methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:1255-1265.
Judd, MA (2001) The human remains. In In D Welsby (Ed), Life on the Desert Edge. Seven thousand years of settlement in the Northern Dongola Reach, Sudan. London: Sudan Archaeological Research Society Publication Number 7. pp. 458-543.
Advanced Skeletal Analysis
Undergraduate Seminar. This course provides the student with an in-depth understanding of the skeletal features used to develop the osteobiographic profile (age, sex, stature, ancestry, handedness) of an individual. This analysis is essential for forensic identification and forms the basis for the reconstruction of ancient individuals and their life-ways. Each student will select some aspect of skeletal analysis and present an overview of the bone biology, the history of the analytical methods, the problems and advantages of each method, modifications that others have made to address these issues, and the current state of knowledge. In the past, some students have proposed new methods of analysis. This will be complemented by a lab exercise designed by the student that will provide data for interobserver analysis of various techniques. The results of this lab will be presented as a poster conference at the end of the term. Prior osteological experience is required.
The human skeleton provides the most direct and unchallenged evidence for an individual’s past behavior as the skeleton is plastic in its response to stress, much the same as a society responds to social and environmental stress. While the artifacts, architecture and features recovered from an excavation leave a cultural imprint on the landscape, so too does culture and behavior leave an impression on the deceased. The individual is not just a biological shell to be cleaved from its cultural context, but rather forms a social package contingent upon culture during life and in death. We will examine social change and behavior from the perspective of the deceased within geographically diverse funerary contexts. We will evaluate factors that may influence the funerary context, such as differential burial practices, preservation and observer error. We will examine traditional labels to explore the topics of gender, biological vs. chronological age, and life course thresholds.
Core Course in Physical Anthropology
The primary goal of the Physical Anthropology Core course is to equip all graduate anthropology students with a broad background and understanding of the historical development of the method, theory and diversity of physical anthropology. We begin with our own body to understand role of genetics and epigenetics in shaping human plasticity, disease, growth and development; we then apply these concepts to forensic anthropology, paleopathology and bioarchaeology. The second half of the course traces the human lineage and behavior from the earliest human adaptive markers ~7 mya to the final migration to the New World, with a focus on current debates. Topics will be examined through journal articles, lecture, seminar, lab and case study exercises.
Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Forensic anthropology brings together several areas of anthropology, notably human skeletal analysis, taphonomy and archaeology within a medicolegal context. Students will acquire a basic knowledge of human osteology and analytical methods required to develop an osteobiographical profile of the deceased (e.g., age at death, biological sex, stature, ancestry). Student will be introduced to basic methods in discovery, excavation, recording and contextual interpretation of human remains in a forensic context. Finally, we will examine activity markers, trauma patterns and common pathological conditions visible on the skeleton that aid in identification.