Joseph S. Alter Professor

3302 WWPH
Phone: 412-648-7508

Joseph S. Alter received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1989.  His research specialization is in medical anthropology with interest in the relationship among religion, nationalism, health and the body in South Asia.  Specific projects have focused on sport, sexuality, yoga, ayurvedic medicine, unani medicine and transnational transformations of medical knowledge.  He is currently involved in a project to study the relationship among Nature Cure, ecology and worldview in contemporary India.  A new project focuses on the relevance of biosemiotics to the development of ecologically grounded social theory.   Teaching and research interests are combined by directing a semester-long study abroad program each Fall term, “Pitt in the Himalayas.” 

Current research concerns the practice of Nature Cure in contemporary India.   The focus of the project is on the question of how health regimens -- that involve such things as mud baths and hydrotherapy -- produce an embodied ecology of being, and how distinctions of social class relate to the public health implications of this ecology as well as to the problems and politics of environmentalism.

Another current project engages questions of ecology in a different way by using insights from the field of biosemiotics to critique human exceptionalism and develop a theory of society and social value that can be applied to inter-species ethnography.  

Earlier research on a range of issues has been published in various books, illustrated and linked below.  Recent articles can be found in the list of publications.


Bharatiya Yog Sansthan, Sanjay Lake Park, Patparganj, Delhi

While the practice of yoga asana and pranayama has spread throughout the world and taken on many forms, the history of development in India is intimately linked to the philosophy of Nature Cure, as reflected in groups such as the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan that advocate a biomoral worldview.

Lalji Pahalwan, akhara Ram Singh, Varanasi

Dangal honors

Akhara Karan Ghanta, Varanasi

Tulasi Das -- Poet, Sage and Weaver of Bamboo Baskets, Uttarakhand

Books are listed and linked under "Research"

2013  Sex, Askesis and the Athletic Perfection of the Soul: Physical Philosophy in the Ancient Mediterranean and South Asia. In Geoffrey Samuel and Jay Johnson eds. Subtle Bodies. Pp. 121-148.   London: Routledge.

2013.  Sri Yogendra: Magic, Modernity and the Burden of the Middle-Class Yogi. In Mark Singleton and Ellen Goldberg, eds. Gurus in Modern Yoga.  P.p. 60 -80.  Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

2012.  Sacrifice and Immortality: Theoretical Implications of Embodiment in Hathayoga. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 35 (2):

2011.  Yoga, Modernity and the Middle-Class: Locating the Body in a World of Desire.  In Companion to South Asian Studies. Pp. 154 – 168.  Isabelle Clark-Deces ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell

2009.  Yoga in Asia – Mimetic History:  Problems in the Location of Secret Knowledge. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East.  29(2):213-229.

2007 The once and future ‘Apeman’: chimera, human evolution, and disciplinary coherence. Current Anthropology (5): 637 – 652.

1999 Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology. Current Anthropology 40(S)43-66.

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

This course is designed to introduce students to cultural anthropological methods and concepts that are useful for gaining a better understanding of human diversity. We will examine such topics as family systems, economic and political change, religion and ritual in order to encourage students to question commonly held assumptions about what is "normal" and "natural" in human experience. Films, videos and slide presentations will supplement texts and lectures. Evaluation of the recitation sections will be determined by the recitation instructor. Attendance, class participation, projects and short quizzes will form the basis of the recitation grade.

Patients and Healers

This course surveys the field of medical anthropology and its history within the discipline of anthropology as a whole, from the perspective of social-cultural theory. Topics dealt with include ethnomedicine, ethnographic cases, cross-cultural studies of healing practices, and connections between medicine and religion. Reference is also made to applied research in contemporary situations.

Himalayan Society and Culture (Pitt in the Himalayas)

The Himalayan region is characterized by a tremendous range of social and cultural diversity that corresponds to climatic, ecological and geographical variation, as well as local and regional geopolitical factors.  Historical change from the emergence of early forms of social complexity centered on chiefs and their forts – from which the regional designation of “Garhwal” takes its name – through the development of kingdoms and larger polities shows the intimate link between geography, environment and socio-political transformation.  Similarly, local language patterns, regional religious practices, musical styles, mythology, food culture, sartorial fashion, architectural design, agricultural and transportation technologies and engineering and trade networks have all been shaped by the structure of mountain barriers, bounded valley communities and bracketed lines of communication that follow river systems.  Whereas the political economy of the Himalayas has been structured around agricultural production, and the development of elaborate field terrace systems, there have also been subsidiary economies centered on trans-Himalayan trade and pilgrimage as well as pastoral nomadism and transhumance.  Since the colonial period, the Himalayas have increasingly become a place for rest, relaxation, tourism and adventure, and this – along with further political transformations since Indian independence -- has led to the rapid development of urban areas.  This course will provide a survey of Himalayan history, society and culture with a focus on the relationship between nature, the environment and geography.

Religion and Ecology (Pitt in the Himalayas)